Anaplastic Large T-Cell Lymphoma in the Intestine of Dogs.
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Anaplastic large T-cell lymphoma (ALTCL) is a rare subtype of non-Hodgkin T-cell lymphoma that occasionally occurs in the gastrointestinal tract of humans. Enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma (EATL) type 1 is the most common type of intestinal lymphoma in dogs, and ALTCL has not previously been reported in the intestinal tract of dogs. Thirteen dogs with intestinal masses diagnosed as intestinal lymphoma with anaplastic morphology were reviewed. Clinical data, including treatment protocols, were available for 11 cases. Immunohistochemistry for CD3, CD20, and CD30 was performed for all cases in addition to PCR for Antigen Receptor Rearrangements (PARR) for assessment of clonality. Eight (62%) of the cases presented with intestinal perforation, and all cases had 1 or more masses arising from the small intestine. Histologically, all cases were characterized by transmural infiltrates of large, CD3-positive and frequently CD30-positive cells. Neoplastic T cells had marked anisocytosis and anisokaryosis, prominent nucleoli, and occasionally indented to reniform nuclei. There was abundant necrosis and inflammation with occasional vascular invasion within neoplastic masses. All cases had a monoclonal T-cell receptor gene rearrangement. The median survival time was 5 days, with 1 dog surviving 2 years after the initial diagnosis. ALTCL can occur as an aggressive transmural lymphoma in the gastrointestinal tract of dogs and commonly causes intestinal perforation. ALTCL can be differentiated from EATL type 1 and might have implications for accurate prognostication and selection of therapeutic options in the future.