Potent inhibition of breast cancer by bis-indole-derived nuclear receptor 4A1 (NR4A1) antagonists
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BACKGROUND: Nuclear receptor 4A1 (NR4A1) is overexpressed in mammary tumors, and the methylene-substituted bis-indole derivative 1,1-bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-hydroxyphenyl)methane (DIM-C-pPhOH) acts as an NR4A1 antagonist (inverse agonist) and inhibits NR4A1-regulated pro-oncogenic pathways/genes in breast and other cancer cells. METHODS: Buttressed analogs of DIM-C-pPhOH were synthesized by condensation of the substituted p-hydroxybenzaldehydes with indole. Breast cancer cell growth, survival, and migration assays were carried out by cell counting, Annexin V staining, and Boyden chamber assays, respectively. Changes in RNA and protein expression were determined by RT-PCR and western blots, respectively. Analysis of RNAseq results was carried out using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis, and in vivo potencies of NR4A1 antagonists were determined in athymic nude mice bearing MDA-MB-231 cells in an orthotopic model. RESULTS: Ingenuity Pathway analysis of common genes modulated by NR4A1 knockdown or treatment with DIM-C-pPhOH showed that changes in gene expression were consistent with the observed decreased functional responses, namely inhibition of growth and migration and increased apoptosis. DIM-C-pPhOH is rapidly metabolized and the effects and potencies of buttressed analogs of DIM-C-pPhOH which contain one or two substituents ortho to the hydroxyl groups were investigated using NR4A1-regulated gene/gene products as endpoints. The buttressed analogs were more potent than DIM-C-pPhOH in both in vitro assays and as inhibitors of mammary tumor growth. Moreover, using 1,1-bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(3-chloro-4-hydroxy-5-methoxyphenyl)methane (DIM-C-pPhOh-3-Cl-5-OCH3) significant tumor growth inhibition was observed at doses as low as 2 mg/kg/d which was at least an order of magnitude more potent than DIM-C-pPhOH. CONCLUSIONS: These buttressed analogs represent a more potent set of second generation NR4A1 antagonists as inhibitors of breast cancer.
author list (cited authors)
Hedrick, E., Li, X. i., Cheng, Y., Lacey, A., Mohankumar, K., Zarei, M., & Safe, S.