Texas-Mexico Border vs. Non-Border School Districts' Growth Trajectory of High-Stakes Reading Performance: A Multi-Level Approach Academic Article uri icon


  • This study focuses on comparing the growth trajectory of border and non-border school districts regarding their fifth-grade students performance on a standardized reading test. Using a growth hierarchical linear model, we investigated the effect of time, school location, and their interaction on students reading performance through the State of Texas Assessment of Academic Readiness (STAAR) reading test in five recent school years. It was found that border school students lagged behind in reading at the initial stage when STAAR was first administered. As time went by, the gap between border and non-border district students reading performance remained. Implications for teaching pedagogy and research are discussed regarding the preparation of border district students to become bilingual, bicultural, and biliterate.

published proceedings


altmetric score

  • 0.5

author list (cited authors)

  • Tang, S., Wang, Z., & Min, Y.

citation count

  • 3

complete list of authors

  • Tang, Shifang||Wang, Zhuoying||Min, Yue

publication date

  • March 2019