Electrochemical monitoring of superoxide anion production and cerebral blood flow: effect of interleukin-1 beta pretreatment in a model of focal ischemia and reperfusion.
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Conditions associated with systemic infection, such as endotoxinemia, are known to increase the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1 in the central nervous system. Systemic infection has been shown to be a common preexisting condition in patients with stroke. To examine a possible consequence of systemic infection, we used a novel electrochemical technique, which combines measurement of cerebral blood flow with measurement of superoxide anion concentrations, to examine the effect of pretreatment of pial vasculature with a proinflammatory cytokine, IL-1 beta, on cerebral blood flow and superoxide anion concentration in a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion. In addition, neutrophil recruitment was measured using an immunohistochemical technique. Our results indicate that exposure of pial and cerebral vasculature to IL-1 beta significantly accelerates recruitment of neutrophils, reduces cerebral blood flow, and increases superoxide anion concentration at the pial surface during reperfusion. These results support the idea that prior exposure of brain vasculature to IL-1 beta results in acceleration of cerebrovascular injury by accelerating recruitment of neutrophils, which secrete superoxide anion, during reperfusion. This finding has possible implications for the treatment of stroke with reperfusion agents in patients with preexisting infections.