You have just finished grading the first exam and the results are in. What does the grade really mean? Did the participants of the course or program learn? How do you know? How will you assess learning at a distance? A fundamental step in systematic instructional design and delivery is deciding how to assess learning outcomes. A well-written instructional objective includes outcome measures. Making certain that the assessment strategies match the objectives is an important first step, a step that must not be overlooked. A frequent concern raised by distance educators is that online delivery takes more time to facilitate and assess than traditional classrooms. In this chapter, we will discuss the use of formative evaluation and authentic assessment techniques to determine instructional effectiveness and learning outcomes. To establish viable online programs, we need to optimize the amount of time educators spend online. Tactics for optimizing time spent facilitating online learning will conclude the chapter.