We review person-organization fit theory and research on selection and recruitment, and also highlight practical recommendations. The article is framed around explaining how and why people who are well matched to their organization experience optimal psychological reactions and performance. We address five key challenges to person-organization fit research and provide a brief overview of the critical distinction between fitting in decisions linked to the attraction-selection-attrition (ASA) model and day-to-day forces linked to doing well at work. Additionally, we organize the fit on domain into a parsimonious set of fundamental motivational constructs, highlighting a taxonomic perspective that broadly captures the fit on purposeful work goals (e.g., achievement, autonomy, communion, and status; Barrick et al. 2013 ) to enhance our understanding as to the nature of the joint nonlinear person-organization effects. We conclude by reviewing research findings using this organizing framework to systematically build knowledge to advance theory, concluding with practical implications for best management practices.