Osmotic and volemic regulation of plasma arginine vasotocin in conscious domestic fowl.
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Recently developed radioimmunoassay methods were utilized to quantitatively characterize secretion of the avian antidiuretic hormone [arginine vasotocin (AVT)] by the hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal system (HNS) of the conscious domestic fowl. The functional characteristics of the osmoreceptor-HNS were evaluated during independent experimental manipulations of extracellular osmolality or volume. Simultaneous measurements of plasma AVT (PAVT) and either plasma osmolality (Posm) or blood volume (BV) in these experiments permitted determination of osmoreceptor sensitivity to independent osmotic or volemic stimuli and set point of the AVT secretory system under conditions of normal hydration. In normally hydrated birds, PAVT and Posm averaged 2.7 +/- 0.2 microU/ml (12.9 +/- 1.0 pg/ml) and 308.1 +/- 0.6 mosmol/kg H2O, respectively (means +/- SE). Characterization of AVT secretion revealed that Posm is a primary determinant of AVT secretion by the HNS of the domestic fowl. Highly correlated and significant relationships between Posm and PAVT exist both above and below the observed basal Posm of normally hydrated birds, with an apparent osmotic threshold for AVT secretion at a Posm of 288.8 mosmol/kg H2O. Analysis of the data also suggested that the HNS is insensitive to changes in BV less than or equal to 10%, because neither isotonic expansion nor reduction of BV altered PAVT. Comparison of past and present avian data with that of the mammalian HNS indicates that 1) the osmotic regulation of antidiuretic hormone secretion is qualitatively and quantitatively similar in birds and mammals, and 2) the volemic regulation of antidiuretic hormone secretion is substantially more important in mammals than in birds.
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Stallone, J. N., & Braun, E. J.
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