ECO, the Evidence & Conclusion Ontology: community standard for evidence information. Academic Article uri icon


  • The Evidence and Conclusion Ontology (ECO) contains terms (classes) that describe types of evidence and assertion methods. ECO terms are used in the process of biocuration to capture the evidence that supports biological assertions (e.g. gene product X has function Y as supported by evidence Z). Capture of this information allows tracking of annotation provenance, establishment of quality control measures and query of evidence. ECO contains over 1500 terms and is in use by many leading biological resources including the Gene Ontology, UniProt and several model organism databases. ECO is continually being expanded and revised based on the needs of the biocuration community. The ontology is freely available for download from GitHub ( or the project's website ( Users can request new terms or changes to existing terms through the project's GitHub site. ECO is released into the public domain under CC0 1.0 Universal.

altmetric score

  • 12.65

author list (cited authors)

  • Giglio, M., Tauber, R., Nadendla, S., Munro, J., Olley, D., Ball, S., ... Chibucos, M. C.

citation count

  • 57

complete list of authors

  • Giglio, Michelle||Tauber, Rebecca||Nadendla, Suvarna||Munro, James||Olley, Dustin||Ball, Shoshannah||Mitraka, Elvira||Schriml, Lynn M||Gaudet, Pascale||Hobbs, Elizabeth T||Erill, Ivan||Siegele, Deborah A||Hu, James C||Mungall, Chris||Chibucos, Marcus C