ATP compartmentation in plastids and cytosol of Arabidopsis thaliana revealed by fluorescent protein sensing. Academic Article uri icon


  • Matching ATP:NADPH provision and consumption in the chloroplast is a prerequisite for efficient photosynthesis. In terms of ATP:NADPH ratio, the amount of ATP generated from the linear electron flow does not meet the demand of the Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle. Several different mechanisms to increase ATP availability have evolved, including cyclic electron flow in higher plants and the direct import of mitochondrial-derived ATP in diatoms. By imaging a fluorescent ATP sensor protein expressed in living Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings, we found that MgATP2- concentrations were lower in the stroma of mature chloroplasts than in the cytosol, and exogenous ATP was able to enter chloroplasts isolated from 4- and 5-day-old seedlings, but not chloroplasts isolated from 10- or 20-day-old photosynthetic tissues. This observation is in line with the previous finding that the expression of chloroplast nucleotide transporters (NTTs) in Arabidopsis mesophyll is limited to very young seedlings. Employing a combination of photosynthetic and respiratory inhibitors with compartment-specific imaging of ATP, we corroborate the dependency of stromal ATP production on mitochondrial dissipation of photosynthetic reductant. Our data suggest that, during illumination, the provision and consumption of ATP:NADPH in chloroplasts can be balanced by exporting excess reductants rather than importing ATP from the cytosol.

published proceedings

  • Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A

altmetric score

  • 41.53

author list (cited authors)

  • Voon, C. P., Guan, X., Sun, Y., Sahu, A., Chan, M. N., Gardestrm, P., ... Lim, B. L.

citation count

  • 52

publication date

  • January 2018