Advances in Biofunctional SERS-Active Nanoparticles for Future Clinical Diagnostics and Therapeutics
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2016 American Chemical Society. The synergy afforded by the combination of biofunctionalised nanoparticles and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has expanded the analytical toolbox for clinical diagnostics and therapeutics. Since their inception, SERS-active nanoparticles have been developed into biofunctional nanoparticles (BFNPs) using a variety of methods to attach biomolecules and pacification layers to nanoparticles to enable detection of various diseases or cancers in vitro and in vivo. However, while there are many reports of the use of BFNPs for diagnostic or therapeutic applications, very few are implemented in a "real" clinical setting, for example, detection of disease biomarkers in tissue or the delivery of drugs to affected cells. This review covers recent advances made in the development of BFNPs for SERS-based detection of clinical samples using in vitro and in vivo methods.