Dynamic RNA holo-editosomes with subcomplex variants: Insights into the control of trypanosome editing.
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RNA editing causes massive remodeling of the mitochondrial mRNA transcriptome in trypanosomes and related kinetoplastid protozoa. This type of editing involves the specific insertion or deletion of uridylates (U) directed by small noncoding guide RNAs (gRNAs). Because U-insertion exceeds U-deletion by a factor of 10, editing increases the nascent mRNA size by up to 55%. In Trypanosoma brucei, the editing apparatus uses ~40 proteins and >1,200 gRNAs to create the functional open reading frame in 12 mRNAs. Thousands of sites are specifically recognized in the pre-edited mRNAs and a myriad of partially edited transcript intermediates accumulates in mitochondria. The control of editing is poorly understood, but past work suggests that it occurs during substrate recognition, the initiation and progression of editing, and during the life-cycle in different hosts. The growing understanding of the editing proteins offers clues about editing control. Most editing proteins reside in the "RNA-free" RNA editing core complex (RECC) and in the accessory RNA editing substrate complex (RESC) that contains gRNA. Two accessory RNA helicases are known, including one in the RNA editing helicase 2 complex (REH2C). Both the RESC and the REH2C associate with mRNA, providing a rationale for the assembly of mRNA or its mRNPs, RESC, and the RECC enzyme. Identified variants of the canonical editing complexes further complicate the model of RNA editing. We examine specific examples of complex variants, differential effects of editing proteins on the mRNAs within and between T. brucei life stages, and possible control points in RNA holo-editosomes. This article is categorized under: RNA Processing > RNA Editing and Modification RNA Interactions with Proteins and Other Molecules > RNA-Protein Complexes RNA Interactions with Proteins and Other Molecules > Protein-RNA Interactions: Functional Implications.