Experimental and Numerical Visualization of Heat Transfer and Hydrodynamics Induced by Double Droplet Train Impingement Academic Article uri icon


  • The objective of this study was to visualize and simulate the thermal physical process during double droplet train impingement for three different horizontal impact spacings (S = 0.65 mm, 1.2 mm and 2 mm). Two identical HFE-7100 droplet trains were produced using a piezoelectric droplet generator at a frequency of 6000 Hz with a corresponding droplet Weber number of 312. A translucent sapphire substrate with a thin film ITO coating was used as heater in the experiments. The heat transfer and hydrodynamics of double droplet train impingement have been visualized using IR thermal imaging and high speed optical imaging techniques, respectively. The double droplet train impingement process was also simulated numerically using the Coupled Level Set-Volume of Fluid (CLS-VOF) approach with dynamic mesh adaption (DMA). Humps were observed both numerically and experimentally between two adjacent impact craters due to the interactions caused by the impinging droplet trains. It was found that the hump height decreased when impact spacing increased. IR images show that higher impact spacing leads to better heat transfer performance, which could be due to the lower hump height at greater impact spacing conditions. It was also observed that higher impact spacing leads to better thermo-hydrodynamics within and outside the impingement zone. In summary, results show that horizontal impact spacing plays a significant role in double droplet train impingement cooling. This work was supported by the National Priority Research Program of the Qatar National Research Fund, Grant No.: NPRP 6-1304-2-525.

author list (cited authors)

  • Zhang, T., Muthusamy, J., Alvarado, J. L., Kanjirakat, A., & Sadr, R.

publication date

  • January 1, 2018 11:11 AM