Production system influences volatile biomarkers in tomato.
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INTRODUCTION: In recent years, growers have used various production types, including high-tunnel systems, to increase the yield of tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum). However, the effect of high-tunnel cultivation, in comparison to conventional open-field production, on aroma and flavor volatiles is not fully understood. OBJECTIVES: To optimize the extraction and quantification conditions for the analysis of tomato volatiles using headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and study the effect of production systems on volatile profiles using metabolomics approach. METHODS: The HS-SPME conditions were optimized for extraction and GC-MS was used to quantify the volatiles from four tomato varieties grown in open-field and high-tunnel systems. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify the influence of production system on tomato volatiles. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The extraction of 2 g tomato samples at 60 °C for 45 min using divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS) fiber gave the maximum amounts of volatiles. This optimized method was used to identify and quantify 41 volatiles from four tomato varieties. The levels of β-damascenone were higher in the high-tunnel tomatoes and geranylacetone was higher in open-field tomatoes. These two volatile compounds could be considered as biomarkers for tomatoes grown in high-tunnel and open-field production systems. This study is the first report comparing volatiles in tomatoes grown in high-tunnel and open-field conditions, and our results confirmed that there is a critical need to adopt biomarker-specific production systems to improve the nutritional and organoleptic properties of tomatoes.
author list (cited authors)
Lee, J., Jayaprakasha, G. K., Rush, C. M., Crosby, K. M., & Patil, B. S.
complete list of authors
Lee, Jisun HJ||Jayaprakasha, GK||Rush, Charlie M||Crosby, Kevin M||Patil, Bhimanagouda S