Mixed micromechanics and continuum damage mechanics approach to transverse cracking in [S,90(n)](s) laminates
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The stiffness reduction in [S, 90n]s laminates due to transverse cracking in 90-layers is analyzed using the synergistic continuum damage mechanics (SCDM) and a micromechanics approach. The material constants involved in the SCDM model are determined using the stiffness reduction data for a reference cross-ply laminate. The constraint efficiency factor, which depends on the stiffness and geometry of neighboring layers, is assumed to be proportional to the average crack opening displacement (COD). The COD as a function of the constraint effect of adjacent layers and crack spacing is described by a simple power law. The crack closure technique and Monte Carlo simulations are used to model the damage evolution: the 90-layer is divided into a large number of elements and the critical strain energy rate Gc having the Weibull distribution is randomly assigned to each element. The crack density data for a [02/904]s cross-ply laminate are used to determine the Weibull parameters. The simulated crack density curves are combined with the CDM stiffness reduction predictions to obtain the stiffness versus strain. The methodology developed is successfully used to predict the stiffness reduction as a function of crack density in [/904]s laminates.