Quadrupole-Quadrupole Interactions to Control Plasmon-Induced Transparency
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2018 American Physical Society. Radiative dipolar resonance with Lorentzian line-shape induces the otherwise dark quadrupolar resonances resulting in electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). The two interfering excitation pathways of the dipole are earlier shown to result in a Fano line shape with a high figure of merit suitable for sensing. In metamaterials made of metal nanorods or antennas, the plasmonic EIT (PIT) efficiency depends on the overlap of the dark and bright mode spectra as well as the asymmetry resulting from the separation between the monomer (dipole) and dimer (quadrupole) that governs the coupling strength. Increasing asymmetry in these structures leads to the reduction of the figure of merit due to a broadening of the Fano resonance. We demonstrate a PIT system in which the simultaneous excitation of two dipoles result in double PIT. The corresponding two quadrupoles interact and control the quality factor (Q) of the PIT resonance. We show an antiresonancelike symmetric line shape with nonzero asymmetry factors. The PIT resonance vanishes due to quadrupole-quadrupole coupling. A Q factor of more than 100 at 0.977 THz is observed, which is limited by the experimental resolution of 6 GHz. From polarization-dependent studies we show that the broadening of the Lorentzian resonance is due to scattering-induced excitation of orthogonally oriented dipoles in the monomer and dimer bars in the terahertz regime. The high Q factors in the terahertz frequency region demonstrated here are interesting for sensing application.