Identification and Quantification of Phytochemicals, Antioxidant Activity, and Bile Acid-Binding Capacity of Garnet Stem Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale).
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UNLABELLED: Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) var. Garnet Stem was harvested from Texas and New Jersey for identification, quantification of phytochemicals, measurement of free radical scavenging activity, and bile acid binding capacity. The red midrib and petioles were extracted with methanol or ethanol and with or without water in combination with four different acids such as formic, hydrochloric, acetic, and citric acid. LC-ESI-HR-QTOF-MS was used to identify four anthocyanins including cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-(6-malonyl)-glucoside (A-1), cyanidin-3-(6-malonyl)-glucoside (A-2), and peonidin-3-(malonyl)-glucoside for the 1st time. In New Jersey samples, vitamin C and -carotene were highest in the leaf blades versus whole leaf and petioles. Samples from Texas had highest amount of lutein, violaxanthin, and chlorophyll a and b in leaf blades versus whole leaf and petioles. Maximum DPPH free scavenging activity was found in MeOH: water: acid (80:19:1) and the combination of FA with EtOH: water: acid (80:19:1) demonstrated the higher level of total phenolic. Among six bile acids, sodium chenodeoxycholate was bound maximum in both Texas and New Jersey samples. This is the first report of anthocyanin identification from the midvein and petiole of Garnet Stem dandelion and results suggested that the phytochemicals and nutrients are highest in the leaf but may vary the amount depending on harvest location. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Four anthocyanins in the red midrib and petioles of Garnet Stem could be a potential source for antioxidants and can be used as a source of natural food color.