Effects of Acetyl-Coenzyme A Carboxylase Inhibitors on Root Cell Transmembrane Electric Potentials in Graminicide-Tolerant and -Susceptible Corn (Zea mays L.).
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Herbicidal activity of aryloxyphenoxypropionate and cyclohexanedione herbicides (graminicides) has been proposed to involve two mechanisms: inhibition of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase) and depolarization of cell membrane potential. We examined the effect of aryloxyphenoxypropionates (diclofop and haloxyfop) and cyclohexanediones (sethoxydim and clethodim) on root cortical cell membrane potential of graminicide-susceptible and -tolerant corn (Zea mays L.) lines. The graminicide-tolerant corn line contained a herbicide-insensitive form of ACCase. The effect of the herbicides on membrane potential was similar in both corn lines. At a concentration of 50 [mu]M, the cyclohexanediones had little or no effect on the membrane potential of root cells. At pH 6, 50 [mu]M diclofop, but not haloxyfop, depolarized membrane potential, whereas both herbicides (50 [mu]M) dramatically depolarized membrane potential at pH 5. Repolarization of membrane potential after removal of haloxyfop and diclofop from the treatment solution was incomplete at pH 5. However, at pH 6 nearly complete repolarization of membrane potential occurred after removal of diclofop. In graminicide-susceptible corn, root growth was significantly inhibited by a 24-h exposure to 1 [mu]M haloxyfop or sethoxydim, but cell membrane potential was unaffected. In gramincide-tolerant corn, sethoxydim treatment (1 [mu]M, 48 h) had no effect on root growth, whereas haloxyfop (1 [mu]M, 48 h) inhibited root growth by 78%. However, membrane potential was the same in roots treated with 1 [mu]M haloxyfop or sethoxydim. The results of this study indicate that graminicide tolerance in the corn line used in this investigation is not related to an altered response at the cell membrane level as has been demonstrated with other resistant species.