- The development self-regulation has been called a primary task of childhood. One system of self-regulation, self-monitoring, is indexed at the level of neural activity as early as preschool as the error-related negativity (ERN). However, how context elicits developmental changes in neural processes of self-monitoring like the ERN is not well understood. Here, socioeconomic status (SES) and parenting were tested as environmental influences on ERN development between ages 3 and 4 (N=119). Results showed the expected increases in ERN between ages 3 and 4 only when both maternal sensitivity and SES were high. This work demonstrates the importance of considering the early environment in order to understand the development of a neural process supporting self-regulation in young children.