Perturbation of glucose flux in the liver by decreasing F26P2 levels causes hepatic insulin resistance and hyperglycemia
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Hepatic insulin resistance is one of the characteristics of type 2 diabetes and contributes to the development of hyperglycemia. How changes in hepatic glucose flux lead to insulin resistance is not clearly defined. We determined the effects of decreasing the levels of hepatic fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (F26P(2)), a key regulator of glucose metabolism, on hepatic glucose flux in the normal 129J mice. Upon adenoviral overexpression of a kinase activity-deficient 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase, the enzyme that determines F26P(2) level, hepatic F26P(2) levels were decreased twofold compared with those of control virus-treated mice in basal state. In addition, under hyperinsulinemic conditions, hepatic F26P(2) levels were much lower than those of the control. The decrease in F26P(2) leads to the elevation of basal and insulin-suppressed hepatic glucose production. Also, the efficiency of insulin to suppress hepatic glucose production was decreased (63.3 vs. 95.5% suppression of the control). At the molecular level, a decrease in insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation was consistent with hepatic insulin resistance. In the low hepatic F26P(2) states, increases in both gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis in the liver are responsible for elevations of hepatic glucose production and thereby contribute to the development of hyperglycemia. Additionally, the increased hepatic gluconeogenesis was associated with the elevated mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. This study provides the first in vivo demonstration showing that decreasing hepatic F26P(2) levels leads to increased gluconeogenesis in the liver. Taken together, the present study demonstrates that perturbation of glucose flux in the liver plays a predominant role in the development of a diabetic phenotype, as characterized by hepatic insulin resistance.
author list (cited authors)
Wu, C., Khan, S. A., Peng, L., Li, H., Carmella, S. G., & Lange, A. J.