Grapefruit-drug interactions: can interactions with drugs be avoided?
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Grapefruit is rich in flavonoids, which have been demonstrated to have a preventive influence on many chronic diseases, such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. However, since the early 1990s, the potential health benefits of grapefruit have been overshadowed by the possible risk of interactions between drugs and grapefruit and grapefruit juice. Several drugs interacting with grapefruit are known in different drug classes, such as HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, calcium antagonists, and immunosuppressives. Currently known mechanisms of interaction include the inhibition of cytochrome P450 as a major mechanism, but potential interactions with P-glycoprotein and organic anion transporters have also been reported. This review is designed to provide a comprehensive summary of underlying mechanisms of interaction and human clinical trials performed in the area of grapefruit drug interactions and to point out possible replacements for drugs with a high potential for interactions.
author list (cited authors)
Mertens‐Talcott, S. U., Zadezensky, I., Castro, W. V., Derendorf, H., & Butterweck, V.
complete list of authors
Mertens-Talcott, SU||Zadezensky, I||De Castro, WV||Derendorf, H||Butterweck, V