Tissue Level Diet and Sex-by-Diet Interactions Reveal Unique Metabolite and Clustering Profiles Using Untargeted Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry on Adipose, Skeletal Muscle, and Liver Tissue in C57BL6/J Mice.
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Dietary intervention is commonly used for weight loss or to improve health, as diet-induced obesity increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, stroke, osteoarthritis, and certain cancers. Various dietary patterns are associated with effects on health, yet little is known about the effects of diet at the tissue level. Using untargeted metabolomics, this study aimed to identify changes in water-soluble metabolites in C57BL/6J males and females fed one of five diets (Japanese, ketogenic, Mediterranean, American, and standard mouse chow) for 7 months. Metabolite abundance was examined in liver, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue for sex, diet, and sex-by-diet interaction. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) suggests that liver tissue has the most metabolic plasticity under dietary changes compared with adipose and skeletal muscle. The ketogenic diet was distinguishable from other diets for both males and females according to partial least-squares discriminant analysis. Pathway analysis revealed that the majority of pathways affected play an important role in amino acid metabolism in liver tissue. Not surprisingly, amino acid profiles were affected by dietary patterns in skeletal muscle. Few metabolites were significantly altered in adipose tissue relative to skeletal muscle and liver tissue, indicating that it was largely stable, regardless of diet alterations. The results of this study revealed that the ketogenic diet had the largest effect on physiology, particularly for females. Furthermore, metabolomics analysis revealed that diet affects metabolites in a tissue-specific manner and that liver was most sensitive to dietary changes.