Effect of wind tunnel air velocity on VOC flux rates from CAFO manure and wastewater Conference Paper uri icon


  • Wind tunnels and flux chambers are often used to measure volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions and estimate emission factors from animal feeding operations (AFOs) without regard to air velocity or sweep air flow rates. Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of wind tunnel air velocity on VOC emission rates. VOC emissions were measured on standard solutions of VOCs in water, and on manure and wastewater from beef cattle and dairy AFOs at wind tunnel air velocities between 0.003 and 0.2 m/s corresponding to volumetric air exchange rates of 0.6 to 39 exchanges per minute. Activated-carbon-filtered air was passed through a small rectangular wind tunnel (30.5 cm length, 15.2 cm width, 5.1 cm height). Outlet air was sampled using stainless steel sorbent tubes (Tenax TA) and analyzed for seven volatile fatty acids (acetic, propionic, isobutyric, butyric, isovaleric, valeric, hexanoic) and four heavier molecular weight (MW) semi-VOCs (phenol, p-cresol, indole and skatole) using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. VOC emission rates increased linearly with increasing wind velocity. These results show that wind velocity is a major factor affecting VOC emissions from AFOs. Selection of representative air velocity or sweep air flow rate is critical when estimating VOC emission factors using wind tunnels and flux chambers.

published proceedings

  • American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2008, ASABE 2008

author list (cited authors)

  • Parker, D. B., Caraway, E., Rhoades, M., Donnell, C., Spears, J., Cole, H. A., Todd, R. W., & Casey, K. D.

complete list of authors

  • Parker, DB||Caraway, E||Rhoades, M||Donnell, C||Spears, J||Cole, HA||Todd, RW||Casey, KD

publication date

  • January 2008