Global Transcriptomic and Proteomic Responses of Dehalococcoides ethenogenes Strain 195 to Fixed Nitrogen Limitation
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Bacteria of the genus Dehalococcoides play an important role in the reductive dechlorination of chlorinated ethenes. A systems-level approach was taken in this study to examine the global transcriptomic and proteomic responses of exponentially growing cells of Dehalococcoides ethenogenes strain 195 to fixed nitrogen limitation (FNL), as dechlorination activity and cell yield both decrease during FNL. As expected, the nitrogen-fixing (nif) genes were differentially upregulated in the transcriptome and proteome of strain 195 during FNL. Aside from the nif operon, a putative methylglyoxal synthase-encoding gene (DET1576), the product of which is predicted to catalyze the formation of the toxic electrophile methylglyoxal and is implicated in the uncoupling of anabolism from catabolism in bacteria, was strongly upregulated in the transcriptome and could potentially play a role in the observed growth inhibition during FNL. Carbon catabolism genes were generally downregulated in response to FNL, and a number of transporters were differentially regulated in response to nitrogen limitation, with some playing apparent roles in nitrogen acquisition, while others were associated with general stress responses. A number of genes related to the functions of nucleotide synthesis, replication, transcription, translation, and posttranslational modifications were also differentially expressed. One gene coding for a putative reductive dehalogenase (DET1545) and a number of genes coding for oxidoreductases, which have implications in energy generation and redox reactions, were also differentially regulated. Interestingly, most of the genes within the multiple integrated elements were not differentially expressed. Overall, this study elucidates the molecular responses of strain 195 to FNL and identifies differentially expressed genes that are potential biomarkers to evaluate environmental cellular nitrogen status.
author list (cited authors)
Lee, P., Dill, B. D., Louie, T. S., Shah, M., VerBerkmoes, N. C., Andersen, G. L., Zinder, S. H., & Alvarez-Cohen, L.