Rational design, synthesis, and crystallographic analysis of a hydroxyethylene-based HIV-1 protease inhibitor containing a heterocyclic P1'--P2' amide bond isostere.
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The rational design and synthesis of a highly potent inhibitor of HIV-1 protease have been accomplished. The inhibitor, SB 206343, is based on a model derived from the structure of the MVT-101/HIV-1 protease complex and contains a 4(5)-acylimidazole ring as an isosteric replacement for the P1'--P2' amide bond. It is a competitive inhibitor with an apparent inhibition constant of 0.6 nM at pH 6.0. The three-dimensional structure of SB 206343 bound in the active site of HIV-1 protease has been determined at 2.3 A resolution by X-ray diffraction techniques and refined to a crystallographic discrepancy factor, R (= sigma parallel Fo magnitude of/Fc parallel/sigma magnitude of), of 0.194. The inhibitor is held in the enzyme by a set of hydrophobic and polar interactions. N-3 of the imidazole ring participates in a novel hydrogen-bonding interaction with the bound water molecule, demonstrating the effectiveness of the imidazole ring as an isosteric replacement for the P1'--P2' amide bond in hydroxyethylene-based HIV-1 protease inhibitors. Also present are hydrogen-bonding interactions between N-1 of the imidazole ring and the carbonyl of Gly-127 as well as between the imidazole acyl carbonyl oxygen and the amide nitrogen of Asp-129, exemplifying the peptidomimetic nature of the 4(5)-acylimidazole isostere. All of these interactions are in qualitative agreement with those predicted by the model.
author list (cited authors)
Thompson, S. K., Murthy, K. H., Zhao, B., Winborne, E., Green, D. W., Fisher, S. M., ... Gleason, J. G.