Confucian values and the implications for international HRD Academic Article uri icon


  • The consideration of cultural issues has become increasingly important in scholarly inquiry and explorative practice in international human resource development (HRD). We review and explore the core characteristics of Confucian-based culture in relation to organizations and unfold how these Confucian values may affect organizational and management practices in China and other Asian countries. Five major aspects of Confucianism are examined. They are: (a) hierarchy and harmony, (b) group orientation, (c) guanxi networks (relationships), (d) mianzi (face) and (e) time orientation. The impact of these values on management practices in the Chinese organizational context is presented in four areas: (a) working relationships, (b) decision-making processes, (c) ruling by man (ren zhi) instead of by law (fa zhi) and (d) HR practices. Implications for organizations and international HRD are also discussed. 2005 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

published proceedings

  • Human Resource Development International

altmetric score

  • 8

author list (cited authors)

  • Wang, J., Wang, G. G., Ruona, W., & Rojewski, J. W.

citation count

  • 103

complete list of authors

  • Wang, Jia||Wang, Greg G||Ruona, Wendy EA||Rojewski, Jay W

publication date

  • January 2005