Landscape Establishment for Baldcypress, Red Maple, and Chaste tree is Delayed for Trees Transplanted from Larger Containers1 Academic Article uri icon


  • Abstract With container-grown trees offered to the public in an increasing array of sizes, it is important to determine the effects of different sizes of container stock on transplant establishment. Clonal replicates of Vitex agnus-castus, Acer rubrum var. drummondii, and Taxodium distichum grown under common nursery conditions in five container sizes, 3.5, 11.7, 23.3, 97.8, or 175.0 L (#1, #3, #7, #25, or #45, respectively), were transplanted to a sandy clay loam field. Physiological stress was measured using xylem water potential and photosynthetic gas exchange rates. Height, trunk diameter, and canopy spread were monitored post-transplant for three growing seasons and root growth was sampled for the first two growing seasons. Trees of all three species from smaller-sized containers, 23.3 L (#7) or less, exhibited reduced transplant shock, decreased establishment time and increased growth rates in comparison to larger-sized containers, apart from increased mortality in 3.5 L (#1) A. rubrum and slower growth in 3.5 L (#1) T. distichum compared to those transplanted from 11.7 L (#3) or 23.3 L (#7) containers Reduced stress levels and increased growth rates corresponded in timing with greater change in root extension of smaller container-grown trees. At the end of three growing seasons, no statistical differences in height or trunk diameter were present for V. agnus-castus container sizes. With a modest wait, consumers may find that smaller container-grown trees will overcome transplant stress more quickly and exhibit growth rates that surpass those of larger container-grown trees. Index words: Acer rubrum, Taxodium distichum, Vitex agnus-castus, container-grown trees, transplant shock, transplant establishment, photosynthesis, transpiration, water stress. Species used in this study: Chaste tree (Vitex agnus-castus L. [an unnamed white flowering clone]); red maple (Acer rubrum L. var. dummondii [Hook. & Arn. ex Nutt.] Sarg. Maroon'); bald cypress (Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich. [test clone TX8DD38]).

published proceedings

  • Journal of Environmental Horticulture

author list (cited authors)

  • Chance, L., Arnold, M. A., Lombardini, L., Watson, W. T., Carver, S. T., & King, A. R

citation count

  • 1

complete list of authors

  • Chance, Lauren M Garcia||Arnold, Michael A||Lombardini, Leonardo||Watson, W Todd||Carver, Sean T||King, Andrew R

publication date

  • June 2017