Tomato leaf curl Yunnan virus-encoded C4 induces cell division through enhancing stability of Cyclin D 1.1 via impairing NbSK -mediated phosphorylation in Nicotiana benthamiana. Academic Article uri icon


  • The whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses induce severe developmental abnormalities in plants. Geminivirus-encoded C4 protein functions as one of viral symptom determinants that could induce abnormal cell division. However, the molecular mechanism by which C4 contributes to cell division induction remains unclear. Here we report that tomato leaf curl Yunnan virus (TLCYnV) C4 interacts with a glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3)/SHAGGY-like kinase, designed NbSK, in Nicotiana benthamiana. Pro32, Asn34 and Thr35 of TLCYnV C4 are critical for its interaction with NbSK and required for C4-induced typical symptoms. Interestingly, TLCYnV C4 directs NbSK to the membrane and reduces the nuclear-accumulation of NbSK. The relocalization of NbSK impairs phosphorylation dependent degradation on its substrate-Cyclin D1.1 (NbCycD1;1), thereby increasing the accumulation level of NbCycD1;1 and inducing the cell division. Moreover, NbSK-RNAi, 35S::NbCycD1;1 transgenic N. benthamiana plants have the similar phenotype as 35S::C4 transgenic N. benthamiana plants on callus-like tissue formation resulted from abnormal cell division induction. Thus, this study provides new insights into mechanism of how a viral protein hijacks NbSK to induce abnormal cell division in plants.

published proceedings

  • PLoS Pathog

altmetric score

  • 12.75

author list (cited authors)

  • Mei, Y., Yang, X., Huang, C., Zhang, X., & Zhou, X.

citation count

  • 60

complete list of authors

  • Mei, Yuzhen||Yang, Xiuling||Huang, Changjun||Zhang, Xiuren||Zhou, Xueping

editor list (cited editors)

  • Fontes, E.

publication date

  • January 2018