This article provides a critical assessment of comparative sociology of race and ethnicity (CSRE). It underscores leading themes and conceptual paradigms that shape current studies in cross-cultural, cross-national, cross-regional, and transnational perspectives on race. It highlights cutting-edge work in the field by examining some cardinal concerns in studies by region, and it points to lacunae that must be addressed by future research. I argue that studies of race in sociology have been anchored in concepts, theories, and paradigms that are heavily derived from U.S.-based experiences and models for too long. I urge for more studies of race and ethnicity that are not limited by this dominance of U.S.-based perspectives or by those that privilege Western contexts such as Europe. This is because there is no cogent reason to assume that race and its intertwined concept of ethnicity are primarily or originally U.S.- or Western-grounded phenomena. The article concludes by pointing to some conceptual and methodological notions that ought to guide future research in the area.