Monocyte differentiation and macrophage priming are regulated differentially by pentraxins and their ligands
- Additional Document Info
- View All
BACKGROUND: Circulating bone marrow-derived monocytes can leave the blood, enter a tissue, and differentiate into M1 inflammatory, M2a remodeling/fibrotic, or M2c/Mreg resolving/immune-regulatory macrophages. Macrophages can also convert from one of the above types to another. Pentraxins are secreted proteins that bind to, and promote efficient clearance of, microbial pathogens and cellular debris during infection, inflammation, and tissue damage. The pentraxins C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid P (SAP), and pentraxin-3 (PTX3) can also bind a variety of endogenous ligands. As monocytes and macrophages are exposed to differing concentrations of pentraxins and their ligands during infection, inflammation, and tissue damage, we assessed what effect pentraxins and their ligands have on these cells. RESULTS: We found that many polarization markers do not discriminate between the effects of pentraxins and their ligands on macrophages. However, pentraxins, their ligands, and cytokines differentially regulate the expression of the hemoglobin-haptoglobin complex receptor CD163, the sialic acid-binding lectin CD169, and the macrophage mannose receptor CD206. CRP, a pentraxin generally thought of as being pro-inflammatory, increases the extracellular accumulation of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, and this effect is attenuated by GM-CSF, mannose-binding lectin, and factor H. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the presence of pentraxins and their ligands regulate macrophage differentiation in the blood and tissues, and that CRP may be a potent inducer of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10.
author list (cited authors)
Pilling, D., Galvis-Carvajal, E., Karhadkar, T. R., Cox, N., & Gomer, R. H.