Diversity and distribution of CYP gene family in Bactrian camel
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Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes belong to a superfamily of monooxygenases which are phase I enzymes responsible for the first pass metabolism of about 90% of drugs in animals. However, these enzymes are often polymorphic and metabolism of the same drug in different species or different individuals is influenced by genetic and non-genetic factors. Bactrian camels are capable of survival in harsh living environments, being able to consume diets that are often toxic to other mammals and can tolerate extreme water and food deprivation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the Bactrian camel's special metabolic pathways and unique detoxification capabilities are attributable to particularities of the CYP gene family. The Bactrian camel's whole genome sequencing data were systemically analyzed and annotated, and then, CYP gene family was searched from the whole protein database and compared with CYP gene families of cattle, horse, chicken, and human. The total of 63 CYP gene copies were found in Bactrian camel's whole genome and were classified into 17 families and 38 subfamilies. Among them, 9 multi-gene families were found, and CYP2, CYP3, and CPY4 have 27, 6, and 7 subfamilies, accounting for 43, 10, and 11% in camel CYP gene, respectively. In comparison with cattle, chicken, horse, and human, the distribution of CYP gene subfamilies in camel is different, with more CYP2J and CYP3A copies in the Bactrian camel, which may contribute to the Bactrian camel's specific biological characteristics and metabolic pathways. Comparing to the cow, horse, chicken, and human CYP genes, the distribution of CYP gene subfamilies is distinct in the Bactrian camel. The higher copy number of CYP2J gene and CYP3A gene in Bactrian camel may be the important factors contributing to the distinct biological characteristics and metabolic pathways of Bactrian camels for adaptation to the harsh environments.
author list (cited authors)
Hasi, S., Yao, J., Yu, S., & Tian, Y.