Interacting Effects of Goal Setting and Self- or Other-Referenced Feedback on Childrens Development of Self-Efficacy and Cognitive Skill Within the Taiwanese Classroom Academic Article uri icon


  • Eighty-four fourth-grade Taiwanese children were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups: goal setting with self-referenced feedback, goal setting with social-referenced feedback, self-referenced feedback only, and social-referenced feedback only. Students then participated in a regular classroom unit of instruction on fractions. Children in the self-referenced groups demonstrated significantly higher fraction skill and self-efficacy than did children in the social-referenced groups; goal setting had no effect. There was a deterioration of social-referenced students' willingness to perform the task over multiple sessions, with this group setting significantly lower goals over time. In addition, a significant correlation between students' mastery and performance goal orientation scores was obtained, suggesting a cultural influence on performance.

published proceedings

  • Journal of Educational Psychology

altmetric score

  • 1

author list (cited authors)

  • Shih, S., & Alexander, J. M.

citation count

  • 45

complete list of authors

  • Shih, Shu-Shen||Alexander, Joyce M

publication date

  • January 2000