Relations of Inhibition and Emotion-Related Parenting to Young Children's Prosocial and Vicariously Induced Distress Behavior. Academic Article uri icon


  • Children's prosocial behavior and personal distress are likely affected by children's temperament as well as parenting quality. In this study, we examined bidirectional relations from age 30 to 42months between children's (N=218) prosocial or self-focused (presumably distressed) reactions to a relative stranger's distress and both supportive emotion-related maternal reactions to children's emotions and children's shyness/inhibition. When controlling for 30-month prosocial behavior and personal distress behavior, maternal supportive (emotion-focused and problem-focused) reactions were positively related to prosocial behavior and marginally negatively related to children's personal distress behaviors and shyness/inhibition at 42months. Thirty-month personal distress behavior predicted greater shyness/inhibition at 42months, and 30-month shyness/inhibition was negatively related to prosocial behavior at 30months.

published proceedings

  • Child Dev

altmetric score

  • 2.5

author list (cited authors)

  • Eisenberg, N., Spinrad, T. L., Taylor, Z. E., & Liew, J.

citation count

  • 16

complete list of authors

  • Eisenberg, Nancy||Spinrad, Tracy L||Taylor, Zoe E||Liew, Jeffrey

publication date

  • May 2019