Space-frequency quantization for wavelet image coding.
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A new class of image coding algorithms coupling standard scalar quantization of frequency coefficients with tree-structured quantization (related to spatial structures) has attracted wide attention because its good performance appears to confirm the promised efficiencies of hierarchical representation. This paper addresses the problem of how spatial quantization modes and standard scalar quantization can be applied in a jointly optimal fashion in an image coder. We consider zerotree quantization (zeroing out tree-structured sets of wavelet coefficients) and the simplest form of scalar quantization (a single common uniform scalar quantizer applied to all nonzeroed coefficients), and we formalize the problem of optimizing their joint application. We develop an image coding algorithm for solving the resulting optimization problem. Despite the basic form of the two quantizers considered, the resulting algorithm demonstrates coding performance that is competitive, often outperforming the very best coding algorithms in the literature.