Twisted Radio Waves and Twisted Thermodynamics Academic Article uri icon


  • We present and analyze a gedanken experiment and show that the assumption that an antenna operating at a single frequency can transmit more than two independent information channels to the far field violates the Second Law of Thermodynamics. Transmission of a large number of channels, each associated with an angular momenta 'twisted wave' mode, to the far field in free space is therefore not possible.

altmetric score

  • 16.25

author list (cited authors)

  • Kish, L. B., & Nevels, R. D.

citation count

  • 11

publication date

  • February 2013