Testing mediation effects in cross-classified multilevel data.
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In this article, we propose an approach to test mediation effects in cross-classified multilevel data in which the initial cause is associated with one crossed factor, the mediator is associated with the other crossed factor, and the outcome is associated with Level-1 units (i.e., the 2(A)2(B)1 design). Multiple-membership models and cross-classified random effects models are used to estimate the indirect effects. The method is illustrated using real data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (1998). The results from the simulation study show that the proposed method can produce a consistent estimate of the indirect effect and reliable statistical inferences, given an adequate sample size.
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