Fluency in Learning to Read for Meaning: Going Beyond Repeated Readings Academic Article uri icon


  • The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of fluency development and focus on instructional approaches that are intended to improve fluency that go beyond the most frequently recommended strategy of repeated readings. Repeated reading is the most recognized approach for developing fluency, and although repeated readings have shown successful results in developing students' fluency, continual reliance on repeated readings without appropriate guidance and support can lead to diminished student engagement. Providing students with varied opportunities to practice and acquire fluency will enhance their active participation in fluency instruction and engage them in reading for multiple purposes. This article provides an overview of fluency instructional methods that go beyond unassisted and unguided student reading practice.

published proceedings


altmetric score

  • 3

author list (cited authors)

  • Nichols, W. D., Rupley, W. H., & Rasinski, T.

citation count

  • 34

complete list of authors

  • Nichols, William Dee||Rupley, William H||Rasinski, Timothy

publication date

  • January 2008