Effective Reading Instruction for Struggling Readers: The Role of Direct/Explicit Teaching Academic Article uri icon


  • Struggling readers are more likely to learn essential reading skills and strategies if the direct or explicit model of instruction is part of the teacher's repertoire of teaching methods. Directly/explicitly teaching reading means imparting new information to students through meaningful teacher-student interactions and teacher guidance of student learning. In this approach, the teacher clearly leads the teaching-learning process. At the heart of the direct instruction method are explicit explanations, modeling or demonstrating, and guided practice. Direct/ explicit instruction needs to be an integral part of learning the major content strands of the reading process - phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension.

published proceedings

  • Reading & Writing Quarterly

altmetric score

  • 40.85

author list (cited authors)

  • Rupley, W. H., Blair, T. R., & Nichols, W. D.

citation count

  • 115

complete list of authors

  • Rupley, William H||Blair, Timothy R||Nichols, William D

publication date

  • April 2009