Practical suggestions for increasing the reliability of classroom observational research Academic Article uri icon


  • The increasing use of classroom observation systems for studying reading instruction requires examination of the observation process. Unreliable observation measures severely limit the utility of such research. This paper examines ways to increase reliability using a framework developed by Cronbach. Temporality and generality form a twobytwo matrix for sources of variation affecting reliability. Specific examples in each element are addressed. 1986 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

published proceedings

  • Literacy Research and Instruction

author list (cited authors)

  • Mangano, N. G., Willson, V. L., & Rupley, W. H.

citation count

  • 0

complete list of authors

  • Mangano, Nancy G||Willson, Victor L||Rupley, William H

publication date

  • January 1986