Practical suggestions for increasing the reliability of classroom observational research Academic Article uri icon


  • The increasing use of classroom observation systems for studying reading instruction requires examination of the observation process. Unreliable observation measures severely limit the utility of such research. This paper examines ways to increase reliability using a framework developed by Cronbach. Temporality and generality form a two‐by‐two matrix for sources of variation affecting reliability. Specific examples in each element are addressed. © 1986 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

author list (cited authors)

  • Mangano, N. G., Willson, V. L., & Rupley, W. H.

citation count

  • 0

publication date

  • March 1986