Johnson(-Iike)-Noise-Kirchhoff-loop based secure classical communicator characteristics, for ranges of two to two thousand kilometers, via model-line Academic Article uri icon


  • A pair of Kirchhoff-loop-Johnson(-like)-Noise communicators, which is able to work over variable ranges, was designed and built. Tests have been carried out on a model-line performance characteristics were obtained for ranges beyond the ranges of any known direct quantum communication channel and they indicate unrivalled signal fidelity and security performance of the exchanged raw key bits. This simple device has single-wire secure key generation and sharing rates of 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 bit/second for corresponding copper wire diameters/ranges of 21 mm/2000 km, 7 mm/200 km, 2.3 mm/20 km, and 0.7 mm/2 km, respectively and it performs with 0.02% raw-bit error rate (99.98% fidelity). The raw-bit security of this practical system significantly outperforms raw-bit quantum security. Current injection breaking tests show zero bit eavesdropping ability without triggering the alarm signal, therefore no multiple measurements are needed to build an error statistics to detect the eavesdropping as in quantum communication. Wire resistance based breaking tests of Bergou-Scheuer-Yariv type give an upper limit of eavesdropped raw-bit ratio of 0.19% and this limit is inversely proportional to the sixth power of cable diameter. Hao's breaking method yields zero (below measurement resolution) eavesdropping information. 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

published proceedings


altmetric score

  • 8.088

author list (cited authors)

  • Mingesz, R., Gingl, Z., & Kish, L. B.

citation count

  • 78

complete list of authors

  • Mingesz, Robert||Gingl, Zoltan||Kish, Laszlo B

publication date

  • January 2008