Unconditional Security by the Laws of Classical Physics Academic Article uri icon


  • Abstract There is an ongoing debate about the fundamental security of existing quantum key exchange schemes. This debate indicates not only that there is a problem with security but also that the meanings of perfect, imperfect, conditional and unconditional (information theoretic) security in physically secure key exchange schemes are often misunderstood. It has been shown recently that the use of two pairs of resistors with enhanced Johnsonnoise and a Kirchhoff-loop i.e., a Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-Noise (KLJN) protocol for secure key distribution leads to information theoretic security levels superior to those of todays quantum key distribution. This issue is becoming particularly timely because of the recent full cracks of practical quantum communicators, as shown in numerous peer-reviewed publications. The KLJN system is briefly surveyed here with discussions about the essential questions such as (i) perfect and imperfect security characteristics of the key distribution, and (ii) how these two types of securities can be unconditional (or information theoretical).

published proceedings

  • Metrology and Measurement Systems

altmetric score

  • 3

author list (cited authors)

  • Mingesz, R., Bela Kish, L., Gingl, Z., Granqvist, C., Wen, H. e., Peper, F., Eubanks, T., & Schmera, G.

citation count

  • 31

complete list of authors

  • Mingesz, Robert||Bela Kish, Laszlo||Gingl, Zoltan||Granqvist, Claes-Göran||Wen, He||Peper, Ferdinand||Eubanks, Travis||Schmera, Gabor

publication date

  • March 2013