Effects of exercise training and hypercholesterolemia on adenosine activation of voltage-dependent K+ channels in coronary arterioles.
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Coronary arterioles from hypercholesterolemic swine display attenuated adenosine-mediated vasodilatation that is attributable to the elimination of voltage-dependent K(+) (Kv) channel stimulation. For the present study, we tested the hypotheses that exercise training would correct impaired adenosine-induced dilatation in coronary arterioles from hypercholesterolemic pigs through restoration of adenosine activation of Kv channels and that vasodilatation to the receptor-independent adenylyl cyclase activator, forskolin, would also be attenuated in arterioles from hypercholesterolemic pigs. Pigs were randomly assigned to a control (NC) or high-fat, high-cholesterol (HC) diet for 20 wk. Four weeks after the diet was initiated, pigs from both groups were assigned to exercise training (Ex; 5 days/wk for 16 wk) or sedentary (Sed) protocols, resulting in four groups of pigs: NC-Sed, NC-Ex, HC-Sed, and HC-Ex. Arterioles ( approximately 150 mum) from both HC-Sed and HC-Ex pigs displayed impaired adenosine-mediated dilatation that was attributable to the elimination of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP; 1 mM)-sensitive Kv channel activation compared with NC counterparts. Arteriolar smooth muscle whole cell Kv currents were significantly reduced in HC-Sed compared with NC-Sed, although HC-Ex and NC-Ex did not differ. Forskolin-mediated dilatation was attenuated by 4-AP (1 mM) and in a concentration-dependent manner by tetraethylammonium (TEA; 0.1-1 mM) in NC-Sed but not HC-Sed. Further, TEA-sensitive Kv currents were diminished in cells of HC-Sed compared with NC-Sed pigs. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed similar expression levels of Kv3.1 and 3.3 in arterioles of NC-Sed and HC-Sed swine with undetectable expression of Kv1.1, 3.2, and 3.4. Taken together, these results suggest that hypercholesterolemia-mediated attenuation of adenosine-induced vasodilatation in coronary arterioles is not corrected by exercise training and is likely attributable to an impairment in the pathway coupling adenylyl cyclase with a highly TEA-sensitive Kv channel isoform(s).
author list (cited authors)
Heaps, C. L., Jeffery, E. C., Laine, G. A., Price, E. M., & Bowles, D. K.
complete list of authors
Heaps, Cristine L||Jeffery, Elise C||Laine, Glen A||Price, Elmer M||Bowles, Douglas K