Shiga toxin 1 induces apoptosis through the endoplasmic reticulum stress response in human monocytic cells.
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Shiga toxins (Stxs) expressed by the enteric pathogens Shigella dysenteriae 1 and enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli are potent protein synthesis inhibitors. Shiga toxins have also been shown to induce apoptosis in epithelial, endothelial and monocytic cells. The precise relationship between protein synthesis inhibition and induction of apoptosis is not known. We show that stimulation of the myelogenous leukaemia cell line THP-1 with purified Stx1 induced the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. Stx1 treatment increased activation of the ER stress sensors IRE1, PERK and ATF6. Toxin treatment increased expression of the transcriptional regulator CHOP and the death domain-containing receptor DR5 at mRNA and protein levels. Following Stx1 intoxication, levels of the survival factor Bcl-2 decreased, while secretion of the death-inducing ligand TRAIL increased. Stx1 enzymatic activity was required for optimal activation of PERK and ATF6, but not IRE1. ER stress elicited by Stx1 increased the release of Ca(2+) from ER stores and the activation of the protease calpain. Inhibition of calpain activity led to reductions in Stx1-induced cleavage of procaspase-8 and apoptosis. Collectively, these data suggest that Shiga toxins trigger monocytic cell apoptosis through the ER stress response, the increased expression of DR5 and TRAIL, and activation of caspase-8 via a calpain-dependent mechanism.