VOLATILIZATION OF CRUDE OIL FROM SOIL AMENDED WITH BULKING AGENTS
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Volatilization of low molecular weight components of spilled crude oil pollutes the atmosphere, but if volatilization can be prevented, these compounds can biodegrade in the soil. Various materials with the potential to act as bulking agents for the purpose of enhancing bioremediation of oil-contaminated soils were tested in the laboratory to determine their effectiveness as sorbents in reducing volatilization of crude oil components. Sawdust, chopped bermudagrass hay, peat, vermiculite, and activated carbon served as the bulking agents and were mixed into the soil at a 1:1 (v:v) ratio immediately after oil was applied. Soils used were a Bowie sandy loam (fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic Plinthic Paludult) and a Weswood clay loam (fine-silty, mixed thermic Fluventic Ustochent). Soil moisture was adjusted to -0.5 MPa potential, and East Texas crude oil was added to each soil to provide 8% oil on a dry soil weight basis. Incubation temperature was either 10or 30C during the 7-day period. Volatile hydrocarbons were analyzed using gas chromatography. At 30C, soil reduced volatilization by 17%, compared with oil alone, but there was no significant difference between the two soils. Addition of peat or hay reduced oil volatilization further. Activated carbon reduced volatilization losses by 28%. Decreasing the temperature from 30to 10C reduced volatilization by approximately 20% for most treatments. Significant amounts of volatile hydrocarbons were lost within the first 4 h after addition of oil to the soil; therefore, it may not be practicable, in many situations, to add bulking agents quickly enough to reduce volatilization significantly.
author list (cited authors)
Rhykerd, R. L., Sen, D., McInnes, K. J., & Weaver, R. W.
complete list of authors
Rhykerd, Robert L||Sen, D||McInnes, KJ||Weaver, RW