Association between fecal S100A12 concentration and histologic, endoscopic, and clinical disease severity in dogs with idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease.
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Idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in dogs can be challenging to diagnose and fecal markers of disease that correlate with its severity could potentially be clinically useful. Surrogate inflammatory markers, such as the concentration of fecal S100A12, are used to detect active IBD in humans. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between fecal canine S100A12 concentrations and clinical, endoscopic, and histologic disease severity. Twenty-six dogs with IBD and 90 healthy control dogs were enrolled. Spot fecal samples were collected and fecal canine S100A12 concentrations measured by an in-house ELISA. The correlation of fecal canine S100A12 concentrations with clinical disease activity (using the canine chronic enteropathy clinical activity index scoring system) and with endoscopic and histologic disease severity (using semi-quantitative grading systems) was assessed in dogs with IBD. Concentrations of fecal canine S100A12 were significantly higher in dogs with IBD (median [interquartile range]: 223 [21-3477]ng/g) than in healthy controls (median [interquartile range]: 9 [5-31]ng/g; P<0.0001). Fecal canine S100A12 concentrations correlated with the CCECAI score (=0.4778; P=0.0408) and the severity of endoscopic lesions in the duodenum (=0.4703; P=0.0354) and colon (=0.9747; P=0.0144), but not with the severity of histopathologic changes except for inflammatory lesions in the colon (=0.8669; P=0.0230). A concentration of 273ng fecal canine S100A12/g feces or greater distinguished (a) dogs with moderate to severe endoscopic disease in any GI section from dogs with at most mild endoscopic disease, and (b) dogs with very severe clinical disease (i.e., a CCECAI score of 12) from dogs with a CCECAI score of <12, with a sensitivity of 71% and 90%, respectively, and a specificity of 89% and 75%, respectively. This study showed that fecal canine S100A12 concentrations are increased in dogs with IBD. Further, this study showed that fecal canine S100A12 is associated with the clinical disease activity, the severity of endoscopic lesions, and the severity of colonic inflammation in dogs with IBD. Fecal S100A12 concentrations are potentially useful as a biomarker of inflammation in dogs with IBD.