Regenerated bovine fetal fibroblasts support high blastocyst development following nuclear transfer.
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Regenerated bovine fetal fibroblast cells were derived from a fetus cloned from an adult cow and passaged every 2-3 days. Serum starvation was performed by culturing cells in DMEM/F-12 supplemented with 0.5% FCS for 1-3 days. In vitro matured bovine oocytes were enucleated by removing the first polar body and a small portion of cytoplasm containing the metaphase II spindle. Cloned embryos were constructed by electrofusion of fetal fibroblast cells with enucleated bovine oocytes, electrically activated followed by 5 h culture in 10 microg/mL cycloheximide + 5 microg/mL cytochalasin B, and then cultured in a B2 + vero-cell co-culture system. A significantly higher proportion of fused embryos developed to blastocysts by day 7 when nuclei were exposed to oocyte cytoplasm prior to activation for 120 min (41.2%) compared to 0-30 min (28.2%, p < 0.01). Grade 1 blastocyst rates were 85.1% and 73.3%, respectively. The mean number of nuclei per grade 1 blastocyst was significantly greater for 120 min exposure (110.63 +/- 7.19) compared to 0-30 min exposure (98.67 +/- 7.94, p < 0.05). No significant differences were observed in both blastocyst development (37.4% and 30.6%) and mean number of nuclei per blastocyst (103.59 +/- 6.6 and 107.00 +/- 7.12) when serum starved or nonstarved donor cells were used for nuclear transfer (p > 0.05). Respectively, 38.7%, 29.4%, and 19.9% of the embryos reconstructed using donor cells at passage 5-10, 11-20 and 21-36 developed to the blastocyst stage. Of total blastocysts, the percentage judged to be grade 1 were 80.9%, 79.2%, and 54.1%, and mean number of nuclei per grade 1 blastocysts, were 113.18 +/- 9.06, 100.04 +/- 6.64, and 89.25 +/- 6.19, respectively. The proportion of blastocyst percentage of grade 1 blastocysts, and mean number of nuclei per grade 1 blastocyst decreased with increasing passage number of donor cells (p < 0.05). These data suggest that regenerated fetal fibroblast cells support high blastocyst development and embryo quality following nuclear transfer. Remodeling and reprogramming of the regenerated fetal fibroblast nuclei may be facilitated by the prolonged exposure of the nuclei to the enucleated oocyte cytoplasm prior to activation. Serum starvation of regenerated fetal cells is not beneficial for embryo development to blastocyst stage. Regenerated fetal fibroblast cells can be maintained up to at least passage 36 and still support development of nuclear transfer embryos to the blastocyst stage.
author list (cited authors)
Liu, L., Shin, T., Pryor, J. H., Kraemer, D., & Westhusin, M.
complete list of authors
Liu, L||Shin, T||Pryor, JH||Kraemer, D||Westhusin, M