- The effects of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) and corn oil (CO) on volume and deformation and effects of mono- and diglyceride (MDG) and sucrose ester (SE) emulsifiers on volume and sensory properties of yellow cakes were studied. 50% HFCS gave the greatest volume; 100% HFCS decreased volume; CO increased volume. Deformation was greatest in 50% HFCS cakes with 50% or 100% CO. Simultaneous optimization of volume and deformation was predicted at 35% HFCS and 67% CO levels. HFCS affected tenderness and aftertaste but not sweetness in cakes formulated with 100% CO. SE emulsified cakes were sweeter than unemulsified or MDG emulsified 100% CO cakes when formulated with 50% and 100% HFCS.