Diagnostic performance of the urinary canine calgranulins in dogs with lower urinary or urogenital tract carcinoma
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BACKGROUND: Onset of canine transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) and prostatic carcinoma (PCA) is usually insidious with dogs presenting at an advanced stage of the disease. A biomarker that can facilitate early detection of TCC/PCA and improve patient survival would be useful. S100A8/A9 (calgranulin A/B or calprotectin) and S100A12 (calgranulin C) are expressed by cells of the innate immune system and are associated with several inflammatory disorders. S100A8/A9 is also expressed by epithelial cells after malignant transformation and is involved in the regulation of cell proliferation and metastasis. S100A8/A9 is up-regulated in human PCA and TCC, whereas the results for S100A12 have been ambiguous. Also, the urine S100A8/A9-to-S100A12 ratio (uCalR) may have potential as a marker for canine TCC/PCA. Aim of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the urinary S100/calgranulins to detect TCC/PCA in dogs by using data and urine samples from 164 dogs with TCC/PCA, non-neoplastic urinary tract disease, other neoplasms, or urinary tract infections, and 75 healthy controls (nested case-control study). Urine S100A8/A9 and S100A12 (measured by species-specific radioimmunoassays and normalized against urine specific gravity [S100A8/A9USG; S100A12USG], urine creatinine concentration, and urine protein concentration and the uCalR were compared among the groups of dogs. RESULTS: S100A8/A9USG had the highest sensitivity (96%) and specificity (66%) to detect TCC/PCA, with specificity reaching 75% after excluding dogs with a urinary tract infection. The uCalR best distinguished dogs with TCC/PCA from dogs with a urinary tract infection (sensitivity: 91%, specificity: 60%). Using a S100A8/A9USG ≥ 109.9 to screen dogs ≥6 years of age for TCC/PCA yielded a negative predictive value of 100%. CONCLUSIONS: S100A8/A9USG and uCalR may have utility for diagnosing TCC/PCA in dogs, and S100A8/A9USG may be a good screening test for canine TCC/PCA.
author list (cited authors)
Heilmann, R. M., McNiel, E. A., Grützner, N., Lanerie, D. J., Suchodolski, J. S., & Steiner, J. M.