Computing during supply voltage switching in DVS enabled real-time processors
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In recent times, much attention has been devoted to power optimization for real-time systems, while guaranteeing that such systems meet their hard (or soft) scheduling deadlines. To reduce power, different tasks in such systems may be run at different power supply voltages, in order to maximally utilize slack in the schedule. However, prior approaches have ignored the practical aspects of switching the power supply. In a typical IC, the VDD net is highly capacitive, and as a result, its voltage cannot be changed instantaneously. In traditional approaches, the assumption is that this net switches instantaneously, which in effect makes it essential to include the VDD switching time in the worst-case execution time (WCET) of a process (adding pessimism to the WCET value). In our approach, we precisely model the switching of the VDD net, and allow the system to continue computations while VDD is being switched. The effect on the delay of tasks during this transition is precisely modeled. This allows a designer to obtain more realistic estimates of the WCET of a process, reducing the pessimism inherent in real-time system scheduling. Our approach can be implemented as a simple look-up table in a real-time scheduler. Our experimental results show that our model is highly accurate, with an error of < 0.2% compared to SPICE simulations. © 2006 IEEE.
author list (cited authors)
Duan, C., Khatri, S. P., & IEEE, ..