Testing Measurement Invariance Using MIMIC: Likelihood Ratio Test With a Critical Value Adjustment Academic Article uri icon


  • Multiple-indicators multiple-causes (MIMIC) modeling is often used to test a latent group mean difference while assuming the equivalence of factor loadings and intercepts over groups. However, this study demonstrated that MIMIC was insensitive to the presence of factor loading noninvariance, which implies that factor loading invariance should be tested through other measurement invariance testing techniques. MIMIC modeling is also used for measurement invariance testing by allowing a direct path from a grouping covariate to each observed variable. This simulation study with both continuous and categorical variables investigated the performance of MIMIC in detecting noninvariant variables under various study conditions and showed that the likelihood ratio test of MIMIC with Oort adjustment not only controlled Type I error rates below the nominal level but also maintained high power across study conditions.

published proceedings


author list (cited authors)

  • Kim, E. S., Yoon, M., & Lee, T.

citation count

  • 62

complete list of authors

  • Kim, Eun Sook||Yoon, Myeongsun||Lee, Taehun

publication date

  • June 2012