- Using data from the 2006 National Survey of Fishing, Hunting, and Wildlife-Associated Recreation, we tested the utility of the multiple hierarchy stratification perspective (MHSP) on predicting Americans' participation in wildlife watching close to home and away from home. The results showed that race/ethnicity was the best predictor of wildlife watching activities. Elderly White females who live in rural areas and have college degrees and high household incomes had the highest rates of participation in wildlife watching close to home. In contrast, young White males who live in rural areas and possess college degrees and high household incomes had the highest participation rates in wildlife watching away from home. Overall, results suggested that the MHSP was more effective in explaining Americans' participation in wildlife watching away from home than it was for wildlife watching close to home. Implications for future research and recreation resource management are discussed. Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.